| 更新时间：2018/5/19 13:49:00
Courtyard housing can be categorized as a building complex with structures on four sides and an open court in the middle.
Many forces have shaped the hierarchical arrangement of these houses (described later), including cultural convention, clansmanship, social status, and the art of placement (feng shui). After centuries of mixed influences by these forces, sets of rich symbolic icons have become associated with the form.
What Forces that Shape and Retain the Beijing Courtyard Houses? Chiu-Shui Chan，Ying Xiong